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Definitions of knowledge encompass the view that knowledge is the sum of what is known: facts, information and theoretical or practical understanding of a subject and include the assertion that the learner is expected to be able to recall or recognize knowledge.

In response to educational and psychological developments and evolving learner-centred paradigms, curriculum and instructional researchers have reconsidered Bloom’s Taxonomy revising it to include several changes with reference to assumptions, structure and terminology. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy incorporates a two-dimensional Taxonomy Table asserting that meaningful learning requires that instruction go beyond simple presentation of factual knowledge, and that assessment tasks require more of students than simply retrieving relevant knowledge by recalling or recognizing factual knowledge (Mayer, 2002).

Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy and learner-centred educational paradigms inform ECU’s approach to the development of knowledge as a course learning outcome.  Constructivism, for example, posits that students discover, construct and transform knowledge as they make it their own and self-regulated learning involves the ability to use and develop knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in one context, in another context (Boekaerts, 1999).

Knowledge has evolved to be viewed as multidimensional including factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive knowledge categories. Reflected through the continuum of Knowledge Course Learning Outcomes across courses at three levels; introduced, consolidated and demonstrated, knowledge is broadened and applied, interpreted, extended and integrated into increasingly complex and focused contexts.

Factual knowledge incorporates the basic elements that students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it including knowledge of terminology and knowledge of specific details and elements.

Conceptual knowledge recognises the interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together including knowledge of classifications and categories; knowledge of principles and generalizations; and knowledge of theories, models, and structures.

Procedural knowledge encompasses knowing how to do something; methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods including knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms; knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods; and knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures.

Metacognitive knowledge refers to knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition. This includes strategic knowledge, knowledge about cognitive tasks including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge, and self-knowledge (Pintrich, 2002).

Metacognitive knowledge of learning strategies enables students to perform better and learn more and seems to be related to the transfer of learning, that is, the ability to use knowledge gained in one setting in another situation (Bransford et al., 1999).

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