Top of page
Global Site Navigation

Academic Integrity

Local Section Navigation
You are here: Main Content

Identifying and Managing Contract Cheating

“Contract cheating occurs when a student submits work that has been completed for them by a third party, irrespective of the third party’s relationship with the student, and whether they are paid or unpaid.” (Harper et al., 2018)

Teaching & Learning Resources

For information on how to discuss Contract Cheating with students refer to the Student Academic Integrity Website.

When marking there are some triggers that highlight a student may have submitted work that is not their own. This includes but not limited to having purchased their assessment task from an essay mill or similar essay bank, or had someone else write all or part of the assessment task.

Quick Reads

Bretag, T., & Harper, R. (2017, May12).  Assessment design won’t stop cheating, but our relationships with students might. The Conversation. Retrieved from

Eaton, S. (2018).  15 strategies to detect contract cheating. Retrieved from

International Center for Academic Integrity. (2016). Institutional toolkit to combat contract cheating.  Retrieved from

Latifi, A. (2018).  Universities armed to fight new ‘battlefront’ of cheating students. Retrieved from

Ellis, C., van Haeringen, K., Harper, R., Bretag, T., Zucker, I., McBride, S., … Saddiqui, S. (2019) Does authentic assessment assure academic integrity? Evidence from contract cheating data. Higher Education Research & Development.  doi: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1680956


Harper, R., Bretag, T., Ellis, C., Newton, P., Rozenberg, P., Saddiqui S. & van Haeringen, K. (2018) Contract cheating: a survey of Australian university staff, Studies in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2018.1462789

Skip to top of page